In 130 CE, Emperor Hadrian visited the east, including the province of Judea. Being an ardent admirer of Greek culture, he fostered the development of Athens. Being so, the Jews hoped he would also rebuild their temple in Jerusalem, but he aimed to turn Jerusalem into a pagan city. Two years after his royal visit, the Jews launched a second rebellion against Rome. They hoped to gain independence and rebuild their temple in Jerusalem. The rebellion was led by a person called Shimon Bar-Kokhba, and so is known as the Bar-Kokhba Revolt.
In 2017, with Erick’s film crew, I reviewed the events and sites related to this dramatic rebellion. We visited some of the secret tunnels the rebels formed in the Shephelah. We also toured Jerusalem seeking evidence relating to those times of turmoil.
The rebellion ended with a complete defeat of the Jews. According to Roman historian Dio Cassius, over half a million Jews were killed, and nearly a thousand towns and villages were destroyed.
The next time Jews fought for their independence in the Holy Land, and succeeded, was about 2,000 years later, in 1948.